► The Response of the Unorthodox. 4: 1-54 THE BULK OF THIS SECTION, which actually continues the general thought of 3: 1-36, revolves around a sinful Samaritan woman and her response to Jesus. If the initial faith of the best representative from the Judean elite appears ambiguous ( 3: 1-10 ) , the faith of the socially worst representative from an unorthodox and ethnically mixed sect appears far more positive, even allowing her to bring her people as a whole to Jesus ( 4: 39-42; cf. 1: 46 ) . She is one of those who believe, not one on whom Gods wrath remains ( 3: 36 ) ; but those who exalt themselves will be brought low ( 3: 30-31 ) , and most, like Nicodemus initially, do not receive Jesus witness ( 3: 32 ) .
The Gospel of John, The Response of the Unorthodox. 4:1-54 - читать, ...
Yet Christ is available even to the elite. If we place John the Baptist in the special category of witness, 5206 the context surrounding his witness ( 3: 22-36 ) in fact alternates between the socially powerful and the weak, providing positive and ambiguous or negative examples of each: Nicodemus (elite, open but uncomprehending) , a Samaritan woman (receptive) , an official of Antipas (receptive) , and a lame man (unfaithful) . Only Nicodemus, however, is part of the Judean religious elite, for the royal official could be viewed as unorthodox.
This section also includes a much briefer healing miracle with no accompanying discourse ( 4: 46-54 ) . The royal official here represents part of a Galilean economic elite, but like many other Herodian aristocrats would have been religiously impure by Pharisaic standards. Through him the Gospel writer illustrates various levels of faith.
True Worshipers in Samaria ( 4: 1-42 ) This extended narrative contrasts starkly with the Nicodemus narrative. 5207 There a religious teacher in Israel proved unable to understand Jesus message ( 3: 10 ) ; here a sinful Samaritan woman not only received the message (though starting with no less daunting social obstacles—cf. πώς in 3: 4, 9 and 4: 9; perhaps πόθεν in 4: 11) , but brought it to her entire Samaritan town ( 4: 28-29, 39-42 ) . Here, as often, John employs ironic contrasts among characters to convey his emphases. 5208 (That the Samaritan woman, in contrast to Nicodemus, is unnamed is probably not as significant. As a woman, her name was less likely to be recorded in Johns tradition; 5209 further, most characters in the context are unnamed, and perhaps their names had not been preserved—2: 1; 4: 46; 5: 5; 7: 3; 9: 1.)
Nicodemus, by contrast, had to be named because he recurs in 7and 19: 39. (The contrast between Nicodemus and the Samaritan woman) as well as some other characters (would frustrate a normal ancient Jewish readers expectations) although John s own original audience already may be predisposed to suspect that the Judean elite is more hostile (; in matters of ministry as well as Christology, one dare not judge by outward appearance) 7: 24 (. Because Nicodemus eventually believes) 19: 39 (, this text illustrates the wide spectrum of believers in Jesus. 5210 Other, more subtle narrative connections are also possible, like the comparison with Jesus crucifixion scene, the epitome of his rejection by his own people in contrast to the positive Samaritan reception. 5211 1. Theological Themes in the Narrative Jesus crosses at least three significant barriers in the story: the socioethnic barrier of centuries of Jewish-Samaritan prejudice; the gender barrier; and a moral barrier imposed by this womans assumed behavior. The heart of the story appears in 4: 23-24: the Father has been seeking true worshipers who will worship him in Spirit and truth, and that was why the Father sent Jesus) 4: 4 (to this particular woman. Outward markers, which Johns religious contemporaries would contemplate, such as her gender, religious tradition and ethnicity, and past moral activity, prove irrelevant in revealing the sort of person God seeks to worship him. Indeed, whereas Jesus sought Philip) 1: 43 (, he did not seek out members of the religious elite; even open-minded Nicodemus had to come to Jesus) 3: 2 (; but Jesus went to great lengths and took serious risks to reach the Samaritan woman.