3548 Likewise in Philo, possessors of wisdom are Gods friends, not his slaves; by adoption such a person becomes Gods «only son» (αύτω μόνος υιός) . 3549 In other texts as well, those who have knowledge of God are his children, though this does not divinize them. 3550 One becomes a child of God by Gods divine imprint, which imparts to humans both mind and reason; but this philosophical sense is hardly comparable to Johns usage. 3551 Johns usage appears closer to Palestinian Jewish texts like the Dead Sea Scrolls, 3552 Psalms of Solomon, 3553 and other Jewish texts less dominated by Hellenistic philosophy, 3554 where the Jewish people as a whole were Gods children. (The Wisdom of Solomon declares both the righteous 3555 and Israel 3556 to be sons of God.) The Jewish conception of Gods fatherhood to Israel is much more intimate than the generally distant language of Hellenistic ritua1. 3557 Often early texts apply sonship language specifically to Israels status in the eschatological time, 3558 but the title belongs to Gods people by virtue of their identity and is not restricted in early Judaism to eschatological uses.
The Gospel of John, The Final Word. 1:1-18 - читать, скачать
Our more abundant (but generally later) rabbinic texts naturally amplify the breadth of traditional descriptions. Torah may in some sense make people Gods children, 3559 presumably through their obedience to it. Following imagery in the Hebrew Bible, 3560 rabbinic expositions and parables frequently identify Israel as Gods child 3561 or his children. 3562 In the late second century, R. Judah insisted that the people of Israel are Gods children when they obey as children should; R. Meir objected that they were Gods children either way. 3563 i Some texts acknowledge that a few teachers had a special sonship relationship with God, although these represent a minority of rabbinic sonship texts. 3564 Given the prominence of Jewish traditions in the Fourth Gospel, we should recognize a contrast between Jewish claimants to the «children of God» title ( 1: 11 ) and its true heirs, those who follow Torah in the flesh ( cf. 3: 3–6; 8: 35–44 ) . 3565 That is, believers in Jesus (who in Johns circle were probably largely Jewish or viewed themselves as adherents of a Jewish faith) assume the covenant role granted Israel as a people, because it is these believers in Jesus who perform the role assigned to Israel in the covenant. Given the adoption of the synagogués «Father» title for God 3566 in early Christianity 3567 (including the earliest Aramaic-speaking church) , 3568 John here concurs with earlier Christian tradition. 3569 Johns later interpretation of Caiaphass prophecy refers to Gods children scattered abroad (11: 52; whether this applies to Diaspora Jews or to Christians is disputed) . 3570 Jesus calls the disciples «children» in typically Johannine (cf. 1 John 2: 1, 12, 13, 18, 28; 3: 7, 18; 4: 4; 5: 21; 3 John 4) idiom for teacher-disciple affection ( 13: 33 ) . Gods people are «children of light» ( 12: 36 ) , as in the idiom of the Dead Sea Scrolls. But in the Fourth Gospel, others are born from above to be like Jesus from above ( 3: 3–13 ) ; becoming children of God means sharing the same Father with Jesus ( 20: 17 ) .
The term εξουσία can be translated «right» or «freedom» as well as «authority. » 3571 Their «authority» to become Gods children ( 1: 12 ) presumably emphasizes divine authorization to become what no human effort could accomplish 3572 (cf. «authority» as authorization in 5: 27; 10: 18; 17: 2; 19: 10–11) ; only the revealer from above could truly induct them into the heavenly realm ( 3: 13–18 ) . Becoming Gods children entails receiving the divine nature or character of which Jesus is the perfect image ( see comment on 3: 3–6 ) . This contrast between divine authorization and human ability is plain in the text; God gave parents power to bring children into the world, but only his Spirit truly creates proselytes ( 3: 6 ) . 3573 2. Not According to the Flesh ( 1: 13 ) That children were conceived in parental passion was an ancient commonplace ( hence «the will of the flesh, » 1: 13 ) .