Byzantine Empire

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St. Photios the Great, the Photian Council, and ...Искать в Источникеpravoslavie.ru
... : Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1982. [19] Holy Apostles Convent, The Lives of the Pillars of Orthodoxy [Buena Vista, Colo. : Holy Apostles Convent, 1990], p. 66. [20] English translation by Holy Transfiguration Monastery, Brookline, Mass. (1983) , and by Joseph P. Farrell (Holy Cross Orthodox Press, Brookline, Mass., 1987) . [21] Mystagogia, para. 9. [22] Second ed., p. 1088. [23] Holy Apostles Convent, p. 64; other excerpts are given on pp. 64-67. [24] Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1948. [25] p. 433. [26] Ware, p. 55. [27] Ibid. [28] Dvornik, p. 328. [29] See A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire [Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1952], vol. 1, p. 330. [30] Ibid. [31] See his Letter 17 in Despina Whites book, p. 161. [32] See Neuner and Dupuis, The Christian Faith in the Doctrinal Documents of the Catholic Church ( New York: Alba House, 1981 ) , p. 232. [33] Vasiliev, vol. 1, p. 331. [34] Joseph Hergenrother; quoted by Ibid. [35] Mansi 17: 516C; Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, p. 786. [36] Translation by Fr. George Dragas, in “The Eighth Ecumenical Council: Constantinople IV (879 880) and the Condemnation of the Filioque, Addition and Doctrine, ” posted in English ... далее ...

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Crypto-Christians in Pontus (Part 1) / ...Искать в Источникеpravoslavie.ru
... area of Trebizond ( modern-day Trabzon ) and many of the local people took refuge in the mountainous area of Kromni, building their homes on the tall forested cliffs (in Greek, Kremos) , away from the Persian raids. These people were called Kromet, or Kremet, or more recently, Kromnaioi [Kromneans]. During the seventh-century reign of Emperor Heraclius ( 610-641 ) , the Byzantine Empire was divided into administrative units called themes and Pontus fell into the 21st theme, the prefecture of Chaldia. Bottom right: Aphrodite Andreadou (+ 1955) , grandmother of George Andreadis Under the Byzantine Empire of the Comnenes, the Kromneans heavily fortified the area. Although rugged and isolated, Kromni was in the pathway of Mongol raiders who frequently attacked Trebizond. Later, Armenians invaded the territory, killing off whole generations until only a small remnant survived. For centuries, Pontus was isolated by its 700-mile chain of towering peaks and river-fed chasms, threaded with narrow muddy tracks on which, even now, it is easy to lose one’s way in the dense forests of black pine and impenetrable alpine mist. As if approaching an island, visitors sailed to Pontus over ... далее ...
Why Is It Necessary to Restore the Patriarchate? ...Искать в Источникеpravoslavie.ru
... exarchs of a diocese (canons 9 and 17) , but the bishop of Constantinople is called an archbishop (canon 28) . Thus, with the new form of Local Churches, an unchanging law of the leadership of their higher administration by a first hierarch is preserved. The next level of Church organization is the patriarchates, which were formed from the union of several dioceses in an ecclesiastical relationship. Thus, the Thracian, Asian, and Pontian Dioceses made up the Patriarchate of Constantinople. At the head of the patriarchates, of these Local Churches of the latest type, are the patriarchs. The Byzantine Empire never coincided with one Local Church; there were several separate Churches with patriarchs at the head within its boundaries. Afterwards, the Local Churches were created on the principle of, among other things, nationality. In moments of a rise of national strength and identity, people would organize for themselves an autocephalous Church and it would be headed by a first hierarch. So it went, for example, in Serbia in the fourteenth century under Stefan Dušan, when the autocephaly of the Serbian Church was declared and the Serbian patriarch was installed. Our Russian ... далее ...
Триадологическая проблематика в XII в.: Николай ...Искать в Источникеbogoslov.ru
... ѐ m ѐ trios Tornik ѐ s. Lettres et discourse Ed. par J. Darrouzѐs. Paris, 1971) и издания соборов 1156-1157 гг. (изд. : Mai A. Spicilegium Romanum. T. X. Romae, 1844. Pр. 16-93; см. близкий к тексту пересказ деяний соборов: Рыбаков А., свящ. Историческая справка о Константинопольском соборе 1156 года Странник. 3, 1914. Сс. 364-378) . Важнейшими из исследований, посвященных истории споров вокруг молитвы: «Ты бо еси приносяяй... » в середине XII в. и соборов 1156-1157 гг., являются следующие: Angold M. Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081-1261. Cambridge, 1995; Idem., The Byzantine Empire 1025-1204: A political History. London, 1984; 19972; Garzya A. Precisazioni sul processo di Niceforo Basilace Byzantion. 40, 1970. Pp. 309-316; Browning R. The speeches and letters of Georgios Tornikes, metropolitan of Ephesos (XIIth century) Actes du XIIe Congrѐs international détudes byzantines. Beograd, 1964. T. 2. Pр. 421-427; Magdalino P. The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos. Cambridge, 1993. См. также: Ермилов П. К вопросу об осуждении протоэдикта Михаила на Константинопольских Соборах 1156-1157 годов Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 3[23], 2008. Сс. 59-72. [2] ... далее ...
Диакон Владимир Василик. Образ Восточной Римской ...Искать в Источникеmetaparadigma.ru
... ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ ἐν τάχει Всякого врага его видиомго или невидимого сокруши и покори под ноги его вскоре. Liturgia S. Basilii. PG T. 31 Сol. 1632. [77] Об этих событиях см. Agathias 5, 12-15. Интерпретацию этого и других источников см. Cвод древнейших источников по истории славян. Т. 1. М., 1991. С. 292-311. [78] Из обобщающих работ см. Meyendorf J. Christ in the Eastern Chriistian Thought. N. Y, 1987. [79] Trypanis K. Op. cit. P. 147. [80] Johannes Ephesus. Historia. frg III. G. H. P. 248-249. [81] MkVey. Sugitta in consecration of Edessa Temple. Р. 52 [82] Мango C. The art of Byzantine Empire. Oxford, 1972. P. 58. [83] Об этой типологии см. в частности Dagron G. Empereur et pretre. Paris, 1986, особ P. 114, 155. [84] Еusebius Caesariensis. Historia ecclesiastica. IX. 9, 5-9. εἰπεῖν, πιστοῖς καὶ ἀπίστοις, ὀφθαλμοῖς τὰ παράδοξα παρειληφόσιν, ἐπιστώσατο. ὥσπερ γοῦν ἐπ’ αὐτοῦ Μωυσέως καὶ τοῦ πάλαι θεοσεβοῦς ῾Εβραίων γένους ἅρματα Φαραὼ καὶ τὴν δύναμιν αὐτοῦ ἔρριψεν εἰς θάλασσαν, ἐπιλέκτους ἀναβάτας τριστάτας· κατεπόθησαν ἐν θαλάσσῃ ἐρυθρᾷ, πόντος ἐκάλυψεν αὐτούς, κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ Μαξέντιος οἵ τε ἀμφ’ αὐτὸν ὁπλῖται καὶ δορυφόροι ἔδυσαν εἰς βυθὸν ὡς εἰ λίθος » ... далее ...
Глава I. Византийские исследования ...Искать в Источникеbogoslov.ru
... E. Jephcott, Likeness and Presence: A History of the Image before the Era of Art) Chicago, 1994 () . [37] Maguire, H. 1992. ‘Byzantine art history in the second half of the twentieth century, in A. E. Laiou and H. Maguire (eds.) , Byzantium: A World Civilization (Washington, DC) : 119-55. [38] Как, например, в работе: Talbot Rice, D. 1959. Art of Byzantium (London) . [39] Cormack, R. 1985. Writing in Gold: Byzantine Society and its Icons (London) ; Nelson, R. (ed.) 2000. Visuality Before and Beyond the Renaissance: Seeing as Others Saw (Cambridge) . [40] Mango, C. 1972. The Art of the Byzantine Empire, 312-1453: Sources and Documents (Englewood Cliffs) . [41] Dalton, O. M. 1911. Byzantine Art and Archaeology (London) ; Diehl, C. 1925-6. Manuel dart byzantine ( Paris, 2nd edn. ) . [42] Mathews, T. F. 1993. The Clash of Gods: A Reinterpretation of Early Christian Art (Princeton) . [43] Brubaker, L. 1992. ‘Parallel universes: Byzantine art history in 1990 and 1991, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 16: 203-33; Mullett, M. 1990. ‘Dancing with deconstructionists in the garden of the Muses: new literary history vs.? , Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 14: 233-43. [44] ... далее ...
The Maidens’ Convent of the Kiev Caves / ...Искать в Источникеpravoslavie.ru
... The Maidens’ Convent of the Kiev Caves Oleg Kochevykh Did you know that in old Russia convents for many centuries were located within the walls of monasteries for men? There were almost no separate convents. Of course, communities for nuns lived separately, but on the territories of monasteries for men, enclosed by walls. This practice existed in both the Byzantine Empire and Russia (Rus’) , and the most glorious monastery of Kiev (also Kyiv) was no exception. So, we offer a brief history of the convent at the Kiev Caves Lavra to all lovers of Kiev antiquity. At war is like at War [1] The major reason for the common community life of monks and nuns (which today would seem odd and full of temptations) was the permanent threat of war. Most ancient and medieval monasteries were situated outside fortified cities—fortresses of that time had very limited space. In addition, monasteries’ livelihoods chiefly depended on their lands, so it was more convenient for monks to settle near their farms instead of travelling there from cities. Besides, for many, withdrawing from the world automatically meant living outside densely populated places. And now imagine a separated and ... далее ...
Orthodox Christianity in Southern Italy. Part 1 / ...Искать в Источникеpravoslavie.ru
... conquered all of Italy except Sardinia. Beginning in 535 the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I began the Gothic Wars to win back Italy for the Roman Empire. After an exhausting series of campaigns which severely drained the empire and devastated much of Italy, Justinian brought Italy and Sicily under Byzantine rule in 552. This was a short-lived victory, however. In 568, three years after Justinian’s death, Northern Italy fell to the invading Lombards, who slowly advanced south. Nevertheless, the area of Southern Italy, consisting of Sicily, Calabria, and Puglia, remained under control of the Byzantine Empire. Civil and military authority was placed in the hands of the Exarchate of Ravenna in 584, where it remained until the Lombard conquest of Ravenna in 751. Although this region was often ravaged by war, a strong Byzantine cultural and monastic presence formed there and persisted until the eleventh century. Ecclesiastically, these Italian territories were at first under the jurisdiction of the Roman patriarchate. Prior to the development of Greek monasticism in Southern Italy, which began to spread in the seventh century, there were already numerous monasteries throughout the ... далее ...
The text of the film “The fall of an empire—the ...Искать в Источникеpravoslavie.ru
... text of the film “The fall of an empire—the Lesson of Byzantium” Russian winter landscape. A church. A snowstorm. Narrator. Hello. In 1453, the Byzantine Empire fell. Let us now take a look at how this happened. Instanbul. The muezzin continues his prayer, amplified by a loudspeaker. The noise of a market place in a Middle Eastern city. Turkish conversation. Narrator. This city was once called Constantinople; six centuries ago it was the capital city of what was without exaggeration one of the greatest civilizations in world history—the Byzantine Empire. A rule by law, something we now take for granted, was created here, based upon the Roman codes, in Byzantium, 1500 years ago. A legal system which was to become the basic foundation of all types of laws in most modern governments was the monumental creation of Byzantine jurisprudence during the reign of Emperor Justinian. The system of elementary and higher education first developed in Byzantium; it was here, in the fifth century, that the first university appeared. The most stable financial system in the history of mankind was created in Byzantium, and existed in a nearly unaltered form for over one thousand years. Modern ... далее ...
Ecclesiology of the Schism: Historical ...Искать в Источникеmospat.ru
... authority over one part of the world in which Christians live. That which the Greeks call the universe – oikumene – does not only mean “The World” like in Latin (orbis terrarium) , [but the Greek word Oikumene] from which comes the title Ecumenical [Oikumenikos] also means “every dwelling or habitable place. ” 5V. Kartashev clarifies the words of Anastasius, translating “Oikumenikos” as meaning “of the Eastern Empire”, Pan-Hellenic 6, All-Byzantine. ” 7 This meaning of the title of the Patriarchs of Constantinople soon took on an immediate sense. During the seventh and eighth centuries, the Byzantine Empire experienced a series of upheavals, as a result of which, significant parts of its territories were seized, first by the Arabs and Persians, and then by the Turks. As a result, the cathedrae of the three Patriarchs (of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem) found themselves outside the borders of a Christian state. Naturally, Constantinople began to be perceived not only as the capital of the state, but also as the capital of the Church, the main bishops of which (the Patriarchs) de facto dwelled in. With time, this historical fact became reflected in the works of thinkers of ... далее ...
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